Dental implants have become a very important treatment for patients who have all or some missing teeth. Dental implants have three main designs: endosseous implants, transosseous implants and subperiosteal implants. The following is a discussion of the differences between the three types of dental implants.
Subperiosteal Dental Implants
The kind of implant consists of cast metal frames that are individually designed. They are made from a master cast and impression of the anatomical site that will be where the dental implant is placed. Projecting out from the dental implant frame are metal posts that penetrate the oral mucosa before entering the mouth. These posts provide retention and support of the implant prosthesis.
A subperiosteal dental implant gets cast into surgical viallium. It does not involve special preparations or surface coating. For support, the dental implant’s frame rests on bone. Screws may or may not be used to fix the frame to the bone.
This implant has restored both the long and short edentulous spans inside the mandible and maxilla. However, it has primarily been used for patients that don’t have any lower teeth and placed in the lower jaw.
Transosseous Dental implants
This kind of implant passes through bone. There is a flat bone plate that gets fitted to the mandible’s lower border. Several posts project out of the bone plate. Some of the posts are inserted into the bone for the purpose of retention. Other posts are passed through the bone and penetrate oral muscosa. Prosthesis retention is provided by prosthetic attachments fitting the intraoral posts.
Variations in transosseous design are related to how many posts penetrate the oral cavity to provide prosthesis support and how many are on the bony plate in support of retention. For prosthesis retention that are usually two or four posts, depending on what the patient’s specific prosthodontic needs are.
This type of implant is machined from a gold alloy, a titanium alloy or commercially pure titanium. Subperiosteal dental implants, on the other hand, are cast. The posts surfaces are threaded. Special preparations and surface coatings usually are not done.
Endosseous Dental Implant
This type of implant is the most commonly used today.
They are positioned inside the jawbone and get support by osseointegration from the bone. There are various different dental implant designs used. Usually an endosseous implant conforms to a natural root’s shape. Other implants use screws for their forms.
The endosseous dental implant gets machined from a titanium alloy or commercially pure titanium. Then it is sterilized, cleaned and packaged into a sterile container and is ready to be used. The surface of the endosseous dental implant might be sprayed or coated to make a textured surface for potentially enhancing the osseointegration process.
Endosseous dental implants generally include an interosseous component that gets placed surgically inside the patient’s mandile or maxilla and referred to as just the implant. This provides the whole dental implant structure with retention. During initial healing, a cover screw might be used.
The implant’s abutment cylinder, which is usually just called the abutment, gets joined with the implant fixture. Then it penetrates the mucosa and enters as the transmucosal component in the oral environment of the implant’s framework. The abutment screw attaches the abutment to the dental implant. These two components accurate orientation at their interface will differ for every single endosseous dental implant. With some endosseous implants, the abutment and implant are designed as one unit. This eliminates having to have an abutment screw. The combination of the two components represents the tooth root analog.
The endosseous implant’s third component resembles a core and post in conventional prosthodontics. It might be two separate parts or a single unit. There is a threaded opening in the middle of the abutment screw. It accommodates the screw that is used for joining the abutment to the core. For some implants that involve a single tooth, the core gets incorporated in a wax pattern. This gets casted to form a framework where artificial teeth are processed or porcelain is fused to produce implant prosthesis. Once the dental crown is completed, a gold screw attaches it to the abutment. With some endosseous implants sintered aluminum oxide is used to make the core. When combined with an outside layer of porcelain, this offers optimal esthetics. In other circumstances, the abutment gets shaped so that it can receive the replacement crown that gets cemented in a conventional way to the abutment.
Endosseous implants, regardless of their design, are tooth root basic analog units for implant prosthodontic protocols. They are used the most frequently for implants used for oral rehabilitation.
The dental implant prosthesis design can help to be initiated by diagnostic mounting. The type of prosthesis used will depend on the dimensions and location of the space where teeth need to be placed and on how successful the dental implant placement is. The most frequent types of clinical situations that implants treat are totally edentulous arch, multiple tooth spans that are in partially edentulous jaws and single tooth replacements. The best dental implant design will be determined by the absence or presence of different factors either determined from clinical mounting or observed clinically.